Maximilian II stands out among the otherwise strictly Catholic Habsburgs: he was sympathetic to Protestantism – a...
Maximilian II
Roman-German Emperor
Philip succeeded his father as king of Spain, which at the time also encompassed the Burgundian patrimony, domains in...
Philip II
King of Spain
On the basis of agreements concluded with his powerful brother Emperor Charles V, Ferdinand I was assigned the...
Ferdinand I
Roman-German Emperor
The third child of Philip the Fair and Joanna of Castile and Aragon, Isabella grew up with her aunt Margaret in the...
Isabella of Austria
Queen of Denmark and Norway
Charles V was one of the most powerful European rulers of all times, reigning over territories in Europe and the...
Charles V
Roman-German Emperor
The daughter of Emperor Maximilian I and Mary of Burgundy, she was brought up at the French court. At the age of...
Margaret of Austria
Regent of the Netherlands
Donna Juana (Joan) of Castile and Aragon was married to Philip the Fair in an alliance arranged between the Spanish...
Joan ‘the Mad’
Queen of Castile and Aragon
Philip was the son of Emperor Maximilian I. He was married to the Spanish infanta Juana (Joan) in a double wedding in...
Philip I, 'the Fair'
King of Castile
With his policies of war and marriage, Emperor Maximilian I laid the foundations upon which the Habsburgs rose to...
Maximilian I, 'the last knight'
Roman-German Emperor
Born after the death of his father King Albrecht II, Ladislaus received the epithet of ‘Postumus’. Only a few weeks...
Ladislaus ‘Postumus’
King of Hungary and King of Bohemia
Following the death of his father, Duke Frederick IV, Sigismund (also called Siegmund) became a ward of his cousin,...
Sigismund ‘the Rich in Coin’
Duke of Austria
The son of Ernest ‘the Iron’, he ruled over the Habsburg Swabian territories from 1446, but demanded a greater share of...
Albrecht VI
Archduke of Austria
Lasting fifty-three years, Frederick’s reign was the longest of any king or emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. He was...
Frederick III
Roman-German Emperor
As Duke of Austria, Albrecht supported the Roman-German Emperor and Bohemian king Sigismund in his struggle against the...
Albrecht II
Roman-German King
Frederick ruled over the Swabian territories and Tyrol at the beginning of the fifteenth century. There he gradually...
Frederick IV, ‘Empty-Pockets’
Duke of Austria
The only son of Duke Albrecht III, he initially shared power with his cousin Wilhelm. However, he became increasingly...
Albrecht IV, 'the Patient'
Duke of Austria
Ernest fought over his share of the Habsburg patrimony with his brothers William and Leopold IV. He became regent over...
Ernest ‘the Iron’
Archduke of Austria
The life of Duke Leopold IV was marked by the numerous family conflicts that arose in the line of his father, Duke...
Leopold IV
Duke of Austria
William’s life was marked by conflicts with his relatives: the eldest son of Duke Leopold III, he initially shared...
William ‘the Ambitious’
Duke of Austria
During the 1360s Leopold administered Tyrol and the Habsburg Swabian territories. However, he pressed for greater...
Leopold III, ‘the Just’
Duke of Austria
The early years of Duke Albrecht III’s reign were marked by the efforts of his brother Leopold III to divide the...
Albrecht III, ‘with the plait’
Duke of Austria
Duke Rudolf IV was the most influential Habsburg of the fourteenth century. Despite his short life of only twenty-six...
Rudolf IV, ‘the Founder’
Duke of Austria
In 1355 Duke Albrecht II issued a house regulation which in effect stipulated that the Habsburg lands were indivisible...
Albrecht II, 'the Wise'
Duke of Austria
The son of King Albrecht I, Leopold pursued his father’s murderers remorselessly. Afterwards he promoted the election...
Leopold I ‘the Glorious’
Duke of Austria