José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva
* 13. Jun 1763, † 06. Apr 1838
José Bonifácio was born in Santos in São Paulo and studied geology in Coimbra (Portugal). After completing his studies he returned to Brazil and became the chairman of the ‘New Patriots’ and a Grand Master of the ‘Grand Orient of Brazil’ Freemasons lodge. São Paulo was the only region of Brazil that did not sympathize with the demands of the Cortes; the people of this region wanted to keep Brazil intact. In order to increase his political influence, José Bonifácio went to Rio de Janeiro, and Leopoldina succeeded in making him Pedro’s most important advisor. On 15 November 1823 José Bonifácio was banished from the country by Pedro I, among other reasons because Bonifácio had criticized the corrosive influence of Pedro’s mistress, Domitila, on his policies.