The battery of the Armee-Geschütz-Reserve on the evening after battle, heliogravure after an oil painting by Rudolf Otto von Ottenfeld, 1897

National Conflicts


The nationalist movements in various parts of Europe herald an era of change for the Habsburg Monarchy – northern Italy is lost, autonomy conceded to Hungary and absolute rule transforms itself into constitutional monarchy. Nationalism and jockeying for supremacy by the leading European powers form the increasingly explosive political background against which the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy presents itself as a multinational state, experiencing a late flowering of literature, science and art.