During the reign of Pedro II (1849–1889), Brazil enjoyed decades of peace, and, still more importantly, of technical advancement. He spent twenty years preparing and negotiating the ‘Abolição’, the abolishment of slavery. In the end Brazil was the only country that managed to put an end to slavery without spilling any blood. The forces seeking to establish a republic became increasingly strong, eventually leading to Pedro’s abdication on 15 November 1889. He and his family went into exile in France.