One of the most conservative Habsburg personalities in the nineteenth century, Archduke Albrecht came to symbolize the...
Archduke of Austria
In 1282 Albrecht was enfeoffed by his father Rudolf I with the lands along the Danube that were to form the nucleus of...
Albrecht I
Roman-German King
As Duke of Austria, Albrecht supported the Roman-German Emperor and Bohemian king Sigismund in his struggle against the...
Albrecht II
Roman-German King
In 1355 Duke Albrecht II issued a house regulation which in effect stipulated that the Habsburg lands were indivisible...
Albrecht II, 'the Wise'
Duke of Austria
The early years of Duke Albrecht III ’s reign were marked by the efforts of his brother Leopold III to divide the...
Albrecht III, ‘with the plait’
Duke of Austria
The only son of Duke Albrecht III , he initially shared power with his cousin Wilhelm. However, he became increasingly...
Albrecht IV, 'the Patient'
Duke of Austria
The son of Ernest ‘the Iron’, he ruled over the Habsburg Swabian territories from 1446, but demanded a greater share of...
Albrecht VI
Archduke of Austria
At the partition of the Habsburg domains under the sons of Emperor Ferdinand I the youngest son Charles was assigned...
Charles II
Archduke of Inner Austria
He succeeded his father Philip IV at the age of four. The genetic outcome of the constant consanguineous marriages...
Charles II
King of Spain
Charles V was one of the most powerful European rulers of all times, reigning over territories in Europe and the...
Charles V
Roman-German Emperor
Charles was installed as heir to the Spanish Habsburgs in 1703 but lost the crown in the war of succession. As...
Charles VI
Roman-German Emperor
A member of the ducal family of Mantua, Eleonore Gonzaga became the third wife of Emperor Ferdinand III in 1651. She...
Eleonora Gonzaga of Mantua

* 1630, † 1686

Eleonora Gonzaga, also called Eleonora of Mantua, was from the ducal family of Mantua. On her marriage to Emperor...
Eleonora of Mantua

* 1598, † 1655

Elisabeth, ‘Sisi’ to her family, was the daughter of Duke Max in Bavaria and Duchess Ludovika. She was betrothed to her...
Empress of Austria
Ernest fought over his share of the Habsburg patrimony with his brothers William and Leopold IV . He became regent over...
Ernest ‘the Iron’
Archduke of Austria
A weak leader, during his reign Ferdinand stood in the shadow of his state chancellor, Prince Metternich, and the so-...
Ferdinand I
Emperor of Austria
On the basis of agreements concluded with his powerful brother Emperor Charles V, Ferdinand I was assigned the...
Ferdinand I
Roman-German Emperor
Ferdinand was a belligerent and ruthless monarch: as ruler over Inner Austria he relentlessly implemented the re-...
Ferdinand II
Roman-German Emperor
Appointed regent of Bohemia by his father, Ferdinand I, after the latter’s death in 1564 he ruled over Tyrol and the...
Ferdinand II of Tyrol
Archduke of Austria
Ferdinand was introduced to political duties at an early age. During the Thirty Years’ War, after the murder of the...
Ferdinand III
Roman-German Emperor
Ferdinand succeeded his father Leopold as regent in Tuscany in 1791, after the latter became emperor. His life was...
Ferdinand III of Tuscany
Grand Duke of Tuscany
Archduke Ferdinand was groomed from an early age by his father Emperor Ferdinand III as his successor on the throne...
Ferdinand IV
Roman-German King
The regency of Ferdinand Karl as sovereign prince of Tyrol is generally seen in a very critical light: he is described...
Ferdinand Karl
Archduke of Austria-Tyrol
The younger brother of Emperor Franz Joseph, Maximilian was viceroy of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia until 1859. He...
Ferdinand Maximilian
Emperor of Mexico