Bartholomäus Spranger: Allegory of Emperor Rudolf II, 1592

The circumstance that fine arts were assigned to the crafts and not to the liberal arts was criticized by many artists, who emphasized the intellectual character of the fine arts, citing allegorical representations, which grouped the fine arts with the liberal arts.

Employing craftsmen and artists at court was important to many dynasties. The objects they created embellished their rulers’ lavish lifestyles, ...
In His Majesty’s Service
1500–1650