Matthias had high political ambitions which brought him into conflict with his brother, Emperor Rudolf II. Following serious clashes (the Bruderzwist) Matthias overthrew his brother with the support of the Estates. However, as emperor he was unable to implement any decisive measures, as the conflicts with the Estates and religious differences were heralding a full-scale war, which finally broke out in Bohemia in 1618. Matthias died shortly afterwards. As he had no children he was succeeded by his cousin, Ferdinand II.